# Chapter 2 - Northumberland, Pennsylvania - Documents

Chapter 2 - Home

## II.E.a John Wright Wheatley, Travel Diary (16 Apr. - 29 May, 1839)

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10
John Wheatley
Northumberland
Pennsylvania
his Memoranda
April 16th 1839

<p.1> John Wheatley /

Left home April 16 1839 about Five in the Evening Arrived at Arensburg 3 in the Morning Rained from 7 to 2 comenced snowng 5 AM snow covered the hills verry thick the 17 7 AM started after Breakfast watter Street where we arrived after traveling over the worst road i ever seen around \about/ 8 in the Evening verry unpleasant day it being snowey and Cold all day

18 started at 5 AM for Pittsburg arrived at Holladays Burg at 10 ½ Breakfasted started at 11

19 Breakfasted at Murraysville at 9 this Morning verry Heavy Frost Supposed to Kill all the Fruit

<p.2> Friday 19th arrived at Pitt about 2 oclock stopped at Mr Irons

Pittsburg Hotel

Satterday 20 Entered the Czar for St Lewis this evening arrived at Wheeling on virginia side about eight in the Evening tarried until \Sunday/ eight in the mornig [sic] a distanc of 92 miles from Pittsburg very fine morning appletrees her in full bloom watter falling verry fast in the river high bluffs on both sides at intervals passed many towns through the day and night Monday mornig at 9 ½ arrived at Portsmouth 350 Miles from Pittsburg verry fine morning.

arrived at Shawneetown about 7 in the Evening went on shore walked through the town Came accross locusts(?) in full Bloom here they are building a new Bank not much of a Place 849 miles form pitt Friday morning 26 arrived at the mouth of the Wabash here we was informed that the <p.7> Pennsylvania & the glasco ware both Burnt the Pennsylvania i saw laying at Paducah at the mouth of the Tennesee River which is a total loss Paducah is springing up verry fine in city stile i understd a company from Yew York [sic] has the principal part of the Town and they are doing all they can to make it flurish i understand the Pennsylvania had 50 thousand Dollar in Specie on board for one of the Banks the loss is Estimated at 200 Thousand Dollars, this Morning Clear and verry warm we have got out of sight of the hills i dont like this country the least bit <p.8> the banks are low and Overflow when ther is a Midling Freshet this is the ruin of the country, last nigh was the First time i though about home the reason was that i went to bed and fell assleep but was awoke by a buzzing in my hed finely i concluded that it was bed Bug that had got in my Ear which made me feel verry bad but finely i bore with it for some time and at last he thot he had got in the rong place for good living so he Backed out much to my satisfaction but when he came the Enterance i snapped him like a Pea and then rested well the remainder of the night

<p.9> Friday at 1 ½ \oclock/ we Entered the Missipi This is a wast [=vast?] different from the Ohio The Watter is Just like soap suds We proceeded about 14 miles When we came \to/ the Glasco the Boat that was Burnt they wore taking things out of her but is a comple Reck We proceeded on 8 or 10 miles when our Engine got out of Order We had to run her on shore to Repair just Before sun set i went on shor on the Masura side here the Soil is about 6 to 10 feet deep here the Musketoes are verry thick and bein(?) pere(?) the vines are nearly 2 feet long and the soil first rate

<p.10> Satuerday Morning \27th/ verry fine about 9 Oclock we came to the Mountains on the Masura side which are limeston in such quantities as i never sas [sic] they are very Beautiful washed or carved out at the distance of 100 feet high about 1 ½ came up a verry heavy storm of rain & hail lasted about ¾ of an ower then cleared of about 2 ½ we pased the Iron Mountain City wich no one would of known to be such from the appearance the are only 3 or 4 houses here just above there is a shot tower built on the top of one of these <p.11> hills which extend along the Massura side for a long distance | the nex thing worth notice was the Cornish Rock which is a beautiful sight that is the Rock is washed out in the stile of a beautiful Cornish. We passed the Screw aug mill this works by the log in the watter cut like a screw and the current carryes it round with such velosity that makse the mill work we arrived at St. Lewis about twelve in the Evening

Sunday Morning 28th arrose after a good sleep walked ut town this place is improving verry much they are building a great Hotel <p.12> which covers the whole square which will be the best Building in the city

Started for Atton on Board of the Empire with a great Many of the Old Comrades which was a verry agreeable set arrived at atton about 2 Oclock stayed with Waples Next Morning got horse & went in the Cutrary about ten miles | seen verry fine jant(?) seen some verry fine Buildings this is the most hilley plase i ever seen i seen where Lovejoy was killed here is an amense of Buisness Done Rents are verry <p.13> high here got back from the Country just in tim to get on Board of Elk with Ramsey & Company \Monday 29th about 3 oclock/ the Missipi is Constanly filled with Islelands low Bank on one side or the other all the way soil appears verry good but would not live here for the Best farm i could get last knigh we had a verry heavy rain it rained until abot 8 in the morning the Cleared of | warm passed on util about 3 Came the City of K\\M/aro\ion/ this is as level as a floor for Miles the Sil is verry good say ten or 15 feet thick but the bans are so low <p.14> that they overflow at every good rise ther is 3 or 4 Steam saw mills here or parts of mills they are falling to pieces with Everything else about the place You may see Churches partley finished and many othe fine Buildings standing withot Roof & some in one condition and some in anothe they say it is verry sick|ley and i should say so too for it is intirely too low but is at a verry pretty Point about 10 miles above Hannibal Hannibal is a town situated on the side of a small hill and appears to be a smart <p.15> buisness place looks as if it will come to something smart here our Boat & the Ben Franklin had a race which our Boat just beat and that was all up to the city of K\M/airo\n/ as they call it but it looks like some of the ancient City all going to the ground and never to rise for ages as long as ther is the heathey West to fly to here is the Best timber as i have yet seen the soil is so good as to make the timber grow to a verry great sis the swamp Red Oak is verry larg maple walnut locust and many other <p.16>

New Boston

i arrived her about eight in the morning this morning Friday 4th 3d this is verry Cold the landing here with all the serrounding Country is Nothing but a bed of sand ther is but 11 Dwellings here this place is a verry slow place nothing doing in any shape here the stage as they Call it is a serious looking thing they stop and feed on the long like a team with us the Perarie her is midling large | left New Boston for Fredk Frick about 11 oclock and arrived there about 12 which is about 7 miles the road he ws verry good and smoothe not a stone nor hardley a stump <p.23> this Farm of Mr Frick i think is a verry cheap property ther is 240 acres Which the most of it can be cultivated with a sng little house and stable and other building the the land is what i would Call first rate it is as black as tar for about 18 inches of a sandy loam and when ploughed gets as fine as any of best of our gardens and produces in abundance when properly attended to here you can stand in the Door and look over ½ of the Farm the house stand under a bluff and fronts the South You can see 7 or 8 miles all as level as a floor this is in a beautiful <p.24> situation and a good neighbourhood ther is a creek about ¼ of a mile to the north Which \is/ well timbered along both sides the timber is blac walnut ash popular cottonwood hickery | and a varity of other kind plums grass strawberry in abundan the only thing wanting is a good spring they say they can get watter by Digging 15 or 20 feet but the Missfortune is there is no stone to wall a well within 7 miles which is rather far for advantage |

Stuerday [sic] 4th of May

This Morning verry high and cold wind such as they have not had since March this Morning. <p.25> verry heavy frost this look rather far north from that of mouth of the Ohio ther is a vast differance in the 2 points enoughf to make a person shuder to go further North Mr Frick is getting stock arround him Logs &c. |

Satuerday afternoon went to Mr Canders with Mr Frick he has a beautiful Farm as Level as a Floor with a fine Spring of Watter he also has a ¼ of Timber about 1 Mile of has has [sic] things arround him snug i Like this stuation verry much this day was very Cold \and Winday/

Sunday Morning the 6\5/th this Morning verry fine and Clear <p.26> Started from Mr Frick for Keithsburg to take Boat for | at which place i stayed Sunday and spent a verry long day looking for a Boat but none came | verry much to my dissatisfaction i walked the Shore up and down, for many hours but no Boat came i took something to Eat at Mr Keiths which they were verry Kind to Offer | and at last i was invited bed which \i/ accepted but lothe to go for fear of Missing a Boat but none came.

Monday Morning the 6th i arrose Early after tolerable <p.27> good nights sleep this Morning comenced raining but soon cleared of but no Boat yet | comenced walking the \shore/ and looking but in vain this was the time i thot on home here putting in time which you would think so precious now 3 oclock & no Boat yet more sorrow, as the time is now past for me to take the stage at Stephens, which will detain me 2 or 3 day again. | i thot like many that i was left on shore

Tuesday the 7th

This morning i arrose more dissatisatisfied [sic] then Ever still looking <p.28> for a Boat at Keiths Burg this but none comes at this place there is 3 or 4 Cabbins on the Bank of the River about 3 miles from Fricks but so anxious to get on, was affraid to leave the Shore here ther was not to drink but River Watter Which i could not stand

The Musquetoes are getting so bad that a person cant have any rest or peace any place | this morning fine and warm |

Wednesday the 8 Fine Morning Still at Keithsburg wating for a Boat but none comes this tryes my patience rather hard <p.29> Nothing but Bred and & soft butter oily Bacon this makes me think more of Home here nothing to pass time but looking down the river as far as the Eye could see but no Boat in sight walk back & forth all the time in suspence for fear one might pass this is enough to weaken a weekly person days & nights without any cumfort in Body or in Mind too hard all the company Enjoying themselves on Rock River wher it is pleasant and can get a drink of good watter which i cant do <p.30> |

about 11 Oclock i left Keiths Burg on foot for Mr Fricks this was the warmest walk that i had in a long time i took dinner there and then started for Millers Burg at which place i arrived in the Evening stopt at Mr Thorntons this is the Newest town that i ever seen it situated on a verry prity place for a Town great Fixters Making for Court in a week or too when i came here i was sadly disapointed to find that the stage had left for Stephenson in the Morning then i <p.31> was in as bad a fix as Ever No Horses no Waggons nor no ox Team to take me over to Mr Boons at Fowlers Grove a distance of about 12 miles i then insisted on G Frick to take me over on part of the way if i could get another chance(?) after going about 5 miles we stopped at a House and the man agreed to take me over which he did and got there in time for the stage Last night we had a verry smart rain most of the night we passed over a beautiful Body of Land as good as need be timber and watter but no stone <p.32>

Thursday 9 of May

Mr Boon has a fine Farm good Land watter & timber | of a midling quality Left Boons for Stephenson a distance of 18 miles through a beautiful Paraie it is said it is 52 miles in length this is the best that i have yet seen this after noon there came up a thunder storm that was a serious looking storm much Lightning & thunder but we got through safe to rock River crosed over to R.T. City this cant be much of a Place

Stephenson is improving verry much it has som beautiful situations for Building that <p.33> is Elevated spots here the Missippi Look better then i have seen it at any other Place The Fort is standing it appears to be in good condition in part they have a verry handsome Court House here Mr Hass keeps the stage office here he keeps a verry Good house

i seen the Place where Black Hawk was taken and the Pen where he kept his Horses & is [=I] seen the Rock River Mound this is verry large the town over the river is improving at a midling rate this Evening is verry cold and windey <p.34> |

Friday Morning 10th Cold Left Stephenson for Savanah in the Hack breakfast at Port Byron about 10 this is a verry dull place all the way up her the land is midling low swampy part of the way thickley timbered i seen 2 mills going by the force of the river watter such as i never saw we passed through many town new land but But [sic] not improving New Albany improving some the land we traversed to here is verry sandy and poorly timbered some of the Parare is improving of the river but is not verry Good all along the river the inhabitants <p.35> complain of the Ague we crosed the cat tails and the [blank] which runs to the Rock River when the Missipi is high and when Rock River is high it runs through to the Missipi we arrived at Futton city about 5½ in the Evening this place is intended for the County Seat it is Laid out verry large on the banks of the river just below there is some verry good land this place is where the road leads to Dixons Ferry i think this place will improve and make a town verry soon for there is several Building going on now <p.36>

Whilst wating here there came a Mr Scott along that was going 6 miles above Dixons i got passage with him and much pleased | at first but it turned out be a tedious rout by laying by one day and then not getting throught as i thot i could a Mr Bower at Dixons asked me ten Dollars to take me on to Kishwaukee a Distance of 35\3/ miles i thot that too Garlickey

Saturday morning 11th we staid her withe Mr Young a Methodist & took Breakfast before we started he lives 10 miles to the East of Futton City he has a fine Farm and there <p.37> is getting a good Settlement arround him ther is a mill within a half mile and saw mill close by and a verry good Grove of timber we then comenced traveling on the prairies ther is some of as good wheat on this prairie as i have seen this spring i think it will yeild 40 bushels to the acre we traveled from 6 in the morning until 12 on one p\r/a\i/rie-about 22 miles this is the largest i have seen it is 60 or 70 miles in length generally good we came to Rock River about 3 Oclock in the Afternoon crosed over to Dixons and stopped about one hour <p.38> and the went on to Mr Scotts Stayed ther until Monday morning

Dixonville is a sturring place but a set of Rogues i think

the Ferry is a valuable Property there was more than 3 hores & men in team crosed in a short time the say it yeild mor than 2 thousand Dollars a year

the land where Mr Scott lives i would not have no timber fit for any thing but Fire wood the land too Gravely and Poor some too wet but the Farm would make a good Grazing farm close here is the army track to Kishwakee <p.39>

stayed At Mr Scott over Sunday this was another verry long day it rained in the afternoon the rain was verry Cold Monday 13th this Morning was verry Cold we started for Kishwakee traveled through some beautiful Prairie and some bad slews but no good timber we arrived at Kishwaukee about 2 oclock this was the most windey day that i ever traveled i had to hold my hat the whole time

Tuesday 14th this day i went with the Company through the timber until about 3 \4/ oclock corosed the river 3 times & <p.40> evaded the slews frequently until i was so tired that i could scarsely walk any further i suppose we must of traveled about 28 miles ther was some of as good timber as there was any place in this part of the Country white walnut about 3 feet over Black walnut of a verry good quality ash Burr Oak verry large hickery Buttonwood Maple and Many Other Kind of timber we then came to the shanpte(?) tired Enough for that day

Wednesday 15th this morning Cold and windey started to look at the land here <p.41> i find i verry large Boddy of verry good Land but not runing watter suffecient for a close settlement Hobert has a verry fine spring of first rate Watter | with a good quarry of lime stone of a midling quality he says he will insure coal under the lime the lime is said to be about 60 per cent the land was ploughing whilst i was ther the plowman said it was the Easyest that he ever ploughed and as good as there is any occasion for the section that i wanted has been claimed by a Mr [blank] and I think there will be some <p.42> trouble about it this was as fine a spring as i would wish to see it is about 2 rods wide each way and throws up the sand & graverl in a great many places 12 to 25 in number

the center of the Parairie is about 3 miles from the timber

i have chosen section No 10 which lays along the the [sic] North of Hoberts and about 6 miles from town to the nearest part and the Watter is to come from Hoberts Spring the sction in the same range is all taken between that and the town Lumber can be got for <p.43> 15 Dollars per thousand shingles at 3 railes from 12 to 15 on the ground the timber setions on both sides are all take but for speculation the persons that hold a section cant pay for ten acres if in market there for if the land comes in market soon ther can be Enoughf got at reasonable prices

Thursday 16th this morning a verry heavy white frost this looks rather Cool for sleeping on the grass vegitation is far advanced this season things looke verry well corn Beans cuccumber <p.44> this is the finest day i have seen since i have been within 150 miles of this that is in the after Part of the Day i traveled over several setions of Land and the are all verry good no musketoes here no buffalo pats as ther is furth south i have seen Deer sand hill Crane snipe pararie Fowls & many other kinds of Birds the sand hill is the larges of all the Bird kind that i ever seen standing 3 feet high

Come Back to Kishwakee this place is not as much of a place as i thot for <p.45> there is 30 frames now standing now and nothing doing at any they will soon be tumbeling to the ground the People here are verry indolent and lazy nothing like enterprise about them this Town is beautifully situated on the Banks of Rock River about 3 miles from the mouth of Seckamore \Run/ \&/ adjoining a Mr Miller that has Bot a Beautiful farm but gave a beautiful Price $5,500.00 Friday morning 17th light frost this morning but no wind 10 oclock it is verry Hot for the time of Day <p.46> grain wheat 1.00 to 1.25 Do Corn 50 Oats 50 Flour 4.50 5.00 Carpenters 1.50 __ 2.00 Labourers 87 1.12 | i arrived at Rockford about 7 this Morning this place is situated in a verry hilly place about the River but the country just back of town is verry level & thickley settled and it is the same all the Way so from Kishwaukee the stage arrived from Galena about 10 and stayed ther until after one we then started <p.47> for Checaugo we went about 3 miles in a verry prity Country and then i came to a verry broken country until i arrived a Belvidear here the Country is level and verry handsome and then broken in places until we come to Amersonsville and here ther is a beautiful country we stoped here for the night we got her about 6½ oclock this day was verry warm | Started for Chicaugo at 4 oclock Came to Williams \16 miles/ for Breakfast through a low slooish country most of the way with scruby Bur Oak We came to Fox River at the town of Elgin 30 Miles from Ames <p.48> This morning verry fine & warm this place is improving verry fast | we proceeded on to Chicago through a low slewish country intil we came within 15 or 16 miles of Chicago and then it is all inundated by times but now it being dry for some time is not quiet so bad but this is the worst that i ever sas the watter is within one foot of the sorface in any place almost after a deal of hard tugs we arrived at Chicago about 5½ oclock in the afternoon this day was verry warm <p.49> | Chicago is as level as a floor for all through and round about this is a verry buisness Place People here seem to be doing as if they intend to do to advantage for the place and themselves things in general are a cheap here as they are on the East this place is improving verry much but rather dul at this time Sunday Morning 19th this Morning verry fine and pleasant here there is but 2 Boats at this time the Pennsylvania & United States the Pennsylvania intends starting this morning and i being anxious to be <p.50> under way took passage for Buffalo started at 12 oclock in a calm watter passed south Port about 6 and wooded at R [blank] at sun set a distance of 60 miles form Chicago | Started about 8 and arrived at Milwakee about 12 in the night and layed there until 4 in the morning this morning was midling cold but the lake smooth the day passed and nothing to notice about 11 at knight we landed at Manatou Island for wood and tarred until six in the morning this morning cold Cloudy and lookd verry much <p.51> for rain but clared of about 8 and was verry fine until we arrived at Mackinaw then the wind came through the narrows from \L/ huron this was cold this is about 5 oclock | we landed her & stayed one hour i was much plased with the view of the fort i went up into the Fort is is verry well fixed off ther are no soldiers her know [=now] ther is a few cannon the Fort is 70 or 80 feet above the watter on the side of a hill the Hill is all Rock it is the most suitable place for a for no i verse at this neck it is impossible for a ship to pass for the land on the <p.52> side projects a great distance in the lake her are the old fashed Houses post Drove in the ground and wetherborded with Bark and covered with Bark & they make another kind the cut the peices abot 4 feet long and the cout a grove in the frame and so they fill up and the joice comes through and is fixed(?) here the Indians are as thick as the Whites and some of them better looking the Squaws on the young Squaws but here is little papooses as thick around the streets as the whites and that is Like Northd for them(?) <p.53> | we then proceeded on at a little before sun set at this place as i was leaving i saw so verry fine church they told me it was a prisbitiarian Church built by the Missonary Society and Close by some verry fine Buildings for the Missionaries to live in Here was a great Deal said abot the maniagement of that buisness here we passed on through the fog until about 5 cleared away and got out of the sight of Land about 6 | as we had just sit down to supper i heard a great fuss in the Kitchen and Come to find the facts the Boat was <p.54> on fire which created gret alarm but the hands soon succeeded in putting it out to great sattisfaction i felt rather bad on acct of being out of sight of Land this was abot 30 miles above Above above [sic] the head of St Clear River We the proceeded on through the river and in the morning we was at on near the head of St C St Claer Thursday 23d this morning we had a heavy rain & thunder which lasted about 2 hours so dark that we had to Eat breakfast by Candle light but Cleared of verry fine <p.55> this morning is getting warm i had a verry bad cold all the way coming to here but this morning i feel \no much/ better | About 4 oclock we arrived at detroyt at which plase we stopt about 1½ this is quiet a large place but is over stocked like all the rest of the Western towns Ft Malan is a verry pritty place i seen a great many red coats and indians here just below is the island wher the patrots took possession of here they have several Forts We arrived at Huron about 2 <p.56> \Friday Morning 24th/ and arrived at Cleaveland about 10 through a heavy storm of Rain & thunder | but after we go ther A short time it cleared of and i went up hill to see the Town & there i find a beautiful Place here there is more boats and shipping then i have yet seen in the West this Place is on Both sides of the canal & river cianyun(?) this is quiet a buisness place it has got verry warm we start for Fair Port at which place we arrived after 3 ½ hours going a distance of 30 miles stoped ½ hour and started with the <p.57> intention to have a race with the Boat Called the Fair Port but they \beat us/ This is a poor looking place i think verry sickley from its location Brown Watter semes to be the simtoms for sicknesses | we pased by several small towns the timber on the american shore is verry thick and tall such i would not like to have where wood is plenty about 10 oclock there came up a heavy storm this is about 20 miles below Erie | which lasted too long for me it deprived me of seeing Erie being sick with my Cold i was affraid to venture out they got in about 12 at night <p.58> stayed there about 2½ hours & then started in the storm Saturday Morning \25/ this morning find after the storm | and arrived at Buffalo about 11 \at the mansin house/ this is the Place for buisness here there there in more buisness done then in all the West the canal boats so thick it seems impossible for them to get through the shipping her is verry numerous the main street is a beautiful street so wide and the walks so roomy her everything is plenty and not very dear accepting the Tavern Bill & that is high <p.59> i took stage to start in the morning at 6 for Avon this morning verry fine passed through the Holland Purchase this a sction of country that i would not live in it is low swampy and verry heavly timbered the land is too cold we arrived at Betania after passing through a verry roughf and then a verry fine part of the country this Betania is a beautiful place the Buildings generally have a grove of 20 to 50 feet begore the house Beautiful trees of the neatest kind and the buildings fixed off in the best stile which is verry common in this <p.60> State we arrived at Avon at 6 in the Evening took supper & started for Canadaga arrived here at 11 started at 20 minutes of twelve for Aubon arrived at Geneva at 2½ started at 3 | this place i cant say any thing about as it being in the night we arrived Watterloo just at day break this is a handsome place like the most of the towns as we passed through arrived at Aubon at 7 in a heavy rain this is another Beauty of a place the Penetintiary is a fine Building & the Building in general are very tastily kept off i feel, verry unwell <p.61> this morning after riding all night over a verry roughf road the last 20 miles was the roughest that i ever rode the reason was because the Drove so fast, | 11 oclock claring off | & cold started at 6 in the Evening for West Hill at which place we arrived about 9 through some of the Best Country for Wheat & Peas, but verry hilly after supper i inquired about Uncle the landlord sayd he knew him verry well and his property was in the hands of Sam(?) West bu did not know how it was he told me to go to Syracuse and ther i could find out all about it by Colling on <p.62> Lawyer Knoxon being the Cort was in session could not see him until noon and after Examining finding that it was sold for an oridginal morgage which took the whole property through his being too Easy, & by making inquiry dinging that Mr [blank] had got the personal Property for his attendance | and trouble so Mr Knoxon says it is all gone and there in no remedy it was rather hard but he ws to Easy Mr Mench said he knew J Wright to be so too much for his own good <p.63> This will be one of as good places for buisness as any in the State the Canal through the Center and Railroad one sqr(?) to the South and another Canal just at hand from the Pike Road her is the place for making salt they are enlargeing their works verry much and the buisness her looks as much as in Philad- | Tuesday afternoon it is verry Cold and rainy Wednesday 29 this morning Cold & rainy started at 8½ Oclock for Cortland at which Place i arrived about 4 after traveling through a verry roughf Country <p.64> The hills are the worst that i have yet see Cultivated but the Country arround Omer is fine & some splendid Buldings and likewise at Cortland ther is two of the finest Buildings that i have yet see they are situated in the Center of the town and occupy one sqr Each with their Gardens which is trees of all sorts kinds and quality shrubery of Every kind this Cant be but the Town lays rather low it is on a levil the citizens are princpally Farmers living in town | On my way here i passed through Canondaga _____ of Indians holding 3 miles square [end of book] ## II.E.b. William McCoy Wheatley’s Surveying Exercise Book and Journals, 1843-44 ### Introduction #### Contents William McCoy Wheatley made his living at various times as a shoemaker, bookkeeper, farmer, manager, iron company owner, rancher and canal boatman, but his formal training was as a surveyer. In his sixteenth year he worked through Gummere’s Surveying at the Northumberland Academy, where (William notes) William B. Mendenhall was the principal. William’s exercise book survives; it includes problems in plane trigonometry, some dated, from 1843-44. William also used various blank pages in the exercise book to copy verses (probably his own), a brief journal, and literary compositions. The physical make-up of the exercise book is interesting. It is homemade, being made of double-foolscap sheets folded and sewn to make a book. In its present form it has 29 leaves. It had a cover of rough heavy brown paper (only the front cover survives). It was originally made up as two booklets: The outer booklet, comprising fol. 1-9 and 22-29, and an inserted inner booklet, comprising fol. 10-21. The outer booklet was originally one gathering of 11 sheets, making 22 leaves; five leaves have been cut out, all in the second half of the booklet (leaves are missing after fol. 24, 25, 28, and two after 29, at the end of the book). The leaf after fol. 24 was cut out before the text on fol. 24-25 was written, so it seems the cuttings were made before William started to use this part of the book, whenever he needed a piece of paper. The inner booklet is made up of different paper, which has not darkened as much as the outer booklet. It comprises a gathering of three sheets, making six leaves (fol. 10-15), followed by six single leaves (fol. 16-21). Various dated items in the outer booklet all date from 1843; all the dates in the inner booklet are from 1844. It seems that William used the outer booklet for his school exercises until the end of the school year on April 4 1843 (fol. 9r); he then used the rest of the book for other purposes during the summer and fall of 1843. When he took up Gummer’s Surveying again in the fall of 1843 or winter of 1844, he carried on where he had left off, but he needed a new exercise book, which he sewed into the old one at the appropriate point. The extracurricular items that William wrote on the unused pages of his exercise book are of some interest. From Nov. 30 to Dec. 7 1843 he kept a journal, which provides a glimpse of his life as a teenager in Northumberland. His time was divided among school, his father’s shop, and the outdoors, where he spent as much time as possible. His romantic attachment to nature is evident in the many verses he wrote on the seasons (which foreshadow the poem he wrote for his wife Mildred during his trip on the Missouri River in 1865), and in the long essay “Beauties of Nature”, as well as a shorter one entitled “An Afternoon Walk”. On fol. 28v are some renderings in watercolours of some leaves and flowers; the bluebells are each whimsically labelled “Pine Apple”. A notable feature of William’s thoughts was his preoccupation with the Rocky Mountains and the distant West. In his journal he mentions spending an hour and a half in conversation in a local shop: Talked a great deal about hunting and trapping. talking of Taking a trip to the Rocky Mountains with joyfull anticipation. One of his poems concludes, “The rocky mountains the place for me”; and at the top of a page he scribbled: “I wish I was in Oregon / cut<t>ing up and have some fun.” The West represented freedom and the abundance of nature. When at the age of 63 William abandoned a successful career as manager and then owner of an iron foundry to move to the North-West, he was fulfilling a childhood dream. Those were William’s concerns in 1843, when he was adding materials to the outer booklet. In 1844, when he had a blank page left at the end of the inner booklet, he copied a campaign song from the presidential election of that year (refering to Henry Clay’s candidacy for the Whigs), and some moral aphorisms concluding: “Gather information from every correct source.” Perhaps he was making an effort to become more serious and improve his moral character, as he described in his essay on the temptations of youth. ### Text <Cover: rough brown paper. Inside:> W.B. Mendenhall / W.F. Wheatley / John Wesley <f.1r> Problem VII … <f.1v> Problem VIII. … Problem IX. … <f.2r> … <f.2v> Problem X. … <f.3r> … <f.3v> Problem XI. … <f.4r> … <includes a diagram signed:> By W.M. Wheatley / 1843 <f.4v> … Problem XII … <f.5r> … <f.5v> … Problem XIII. … <f.6r> … <bottom half of page blank; before the problem was written in ink, a pencil sketch was made of a building, probably the tower of the Presbyterian Church: see below, ff. 22r and 23r> <f.6v> Problem XIV … Problem XV. … <f.7r> … <f.7v> Problem XVI … <f.8r> Problem XVII … <f.8v> … <f.9r> … <at foot of page:> This day April 4th School is done / Farewell! I will not leave the<e> long <f.9v: a page of miscellaneous notes and verses> As school is about coming to a close I will address it with the following Come let us leave the good old school The ambitious and the worldly wise Tramps revels turbulent & Cool and pleasures round us rise. Lets seek the little tufts of flowers Hid neath the turf from sultry beams Nor waste lifes swift and smiling hours In senseless joys or idle dreams. Farewell. I will not leave thee long Good Bye. Bye. Bye There was a time When hogs were swine And Turkey chews tobacco. At the base of the Blue Hill The Susquehanna rolls along The murmurings and the echoing rill Along the beach the sound prolong Spring Spring returns with blessings rich Crowns the flowers with every hue The reviving and the new blossom which Sends the winter off is now(?) in view! The little streams thus glide along So gently sing the joyfull song No more disturbed with ice and snow But gently oer the pebbles flow. Winter The winter comes with and tempest blow and crowns the fields with driven snow Binds the peaceful brooks with ice All natures crowned with Gloominess The morn was clear fine The sky was clear I am bound for to go To the Rocky Mount Oh <f.10r> <Beginning of inserted booklet; oversized pen exercises:> Manner. Northumberland. <f.10v> Gummer’s Surveying. Key to Problem XVIII. … <f.11r> … Problem XVIIII … <f.11v> … <includes diagram, signed twice:> W.M.F. Wheatley. <Between ff. 11 and 12, a loose paper with a diagram and some calculations.> <f.12r> … <f.12v> Chapter VI. Miscellaneous Questions. 1. … 2. … <f.13r> 3. … 4. … <f.13v> … 5. … <f.14r> 6. … <f.14v> 7. … <f.15r> 8. … 9. … <f.15v> 10 … <includes diagram, signed:> By W.M.F.W. … 11. … <f.16r> 12. … 13. … <f.16v> … 14. … <f.17r> … 15. … <f.17v> … 16. … <at the foot of the page:> Principal Wm B. Mendenhall By Wm M Wheatley 44 Northumberland Academy - North’ Co. Penna. <f.18r> 17th. … 18. … <f.18v> … <f.19r> … <some scribbles:> James / James / J John <f.19v> … <full-page diagram, signed:> Protracted by / William M. Wheatley. / North’ County / Pa Feb 12 1844 <f.20r> … <f.20v> … <f.21r> … <end of problem signed:> By W. M. Wheatley 1844 <rest of page blank> <f.21v> <verses:> Come all ye sons of fre<e>dom hear The voice of your cou<n>try now Ye Whigs and democrats give ear and sound Principles avow. A National Bank. they say we want. To make our country poor. Millions cry groan and pant. Ah! Clay’s the man they want secure The ____ Banner(?) death(?) ran. <three words scribbled out> for to plan A way to get a _____ treasury To pay his formen(?) at 10$ a day.

<blue ink>

Eternal wisdom was praised by men of ages

Happy is he who is blest in the most high

How beautiful and how sublime are the works of Nature. God to whom universal nations all ____

Should youthful days in deadly silence dwell
The flattering tales of boyhood pass away.
Memory! ___ ____. can only tell.
Of the tales of yore. preserves them from decay.

Gather information from every correct source

Gather information from every correct source.

<f.22r> <a pencil drawing of a building, drawn with some care using a straight-edge, with some measurements marked; but part of the top of the page had been cut away, so the top of the tower is on f.23r-William ignored the cut and extended the lines of the tower onto the page beneath. The building is labelled, in ink:> Plan of the Old School / Presbyterian Church. / Completed in 1843 <Other scribbles and calculations in ink obscure the drawing.>

<f.22v> <Scribbles, diagrams and calculations; four lines of the smallest possible writing:>

The boys are skating on the ice
With ___ and ______________
Then whirling spins(?) of delight
But _____________________

<f.23r>

The sun has rose above the hills
Just Ripen(?) the gentle rolling rills.

<A diagram; a scribble:> Thornton

<f.23v>

What have we gained by the war. This is a very important question to the american born individual. who is resqued from the bonds of slavery. and from those obnoxious laws of Great Britain.

Journal Commenced Nov. 30 1843.

I am about to commence a kind of memorandum or journal of the transactions which occur Daily. If I had commenced this last Spring what a Jolly row of matters and things I would have had here Today. Gracious Alive! And so now I commence now better late than never as the old saying is. now then: Go It Boots.

This morning I rose at 7 oclock, with a kind of dissiness in my head, flustered about a while then all was wright(?). Eat breakfast at 8-cut some wood went Down street looked round awhile come home attended to some business of shop got ready went to ____ school. Weather. Morning damp, and Drislly(?) 8 oclock had to continue until _____ Going to school in(?) the business in the work.(?) said grammer. Done 2 sums in Plane Trigonometry. 11 oclock. fooled around a little etc. Had a quarrel about a couple of s__ain strings with +: Opinion.

Intermission. Eat 2 apples. made the Figure to case 4 Rule 2 2d jun. Gummer Surveying. begins to rain. school leaves out 12 oclock. Dinner 12 ¾ School leaves takes in 1 ½ oclock. Studying ancient History. said Philosophy-said Chemistry-said History. Done 3 sums- ½ 3 intermission. went out at 4 oclock. to look at our snares very unpleasant out. went over to the Blue Hill on examaining the traps we \and/ found that we caught 1 Rabbit. 5 oclock. continues Raining. took the rabbit of the snare tied its legs. set the snare and went on Look at the rest but found nothing. we then proceeded on towards home, arrived. ¼ 6 oclock <f.24r>

Got supper 6 oclock. wet down to De Rigne shop loafed(?) there about an hour and ½ - Talked a great deal about hunting and trapping. talking of Taking a trip to the Rocky Mountains with joyfull anticipation. getting tired. goes home ½ past 7 Posted 2 pages. 800 went Down wancks shop - staid 10 minutes come home went to Bed ¼ past 9. Slept fine all night rose 7 oclock took Breakfast. attended to the business of the shop. whilst there. I heard hooping and hallowing of the Boys ran to the Door. saw the street full of Boys and men. asked whats the matter. said the Rabbit we caught last evening got away then had quite a chase. caught it. - ¼ of 9 got Ready went to school. wrote awhile. weather. looks Dreary-no sun. Damp and mist. | Nothing occurred worthy of notice. Friday 1st December. This morning. snow. commences During the night. continues all. day. stayed home this morning. in consequence of particular Business. went this afternoon. said Philosophy-wrote awhile. Returned home. went to the Hill. - | Saturday 2d Rose at ½ past 6. stayed at home this morning went hunting in the afternoon. got nothing. snares stolen this morning. Sunday 3d morning cold and clear. 11 oclock went to meeting no preaching. returned home. ½ past 2 went to church-Loafed about awhile went to bed. slept. very cold all night. Monday 4 cold very cold. exceeding cold all day. Tuesday 5. Rose ½ past six went to the snares. observed that our game had been stolen. recovered our loss. with difficulty. & trouble. went at the regular hour. wrote awhile. recited grammer–afternoon said Philosophy–done 3 sums in Plane Trigonometry. towards evening got matters arranged for a Barbarceau. came of between the hours 6 & 12 oclock it was a grand festival. 12 oclock. all was over Returned home. Wednesday. 6 Nothing transpired worthy of insertion. Thursday 7 Rose 7.- and found to my great surprise that the snow had fallen to the depth of 4 inches continues untill 3 oclock. <Last 5 ½ lines blank.>

<f.24v>

Beauties of Nature

How beautiful and how sublime are the works of rural nature. It has spread its radiance on every hand, as far as the vision can be extended the eye is constantly enveloped by natures works. How pleasant it is to retire to the margin of some refreshing stream or beneath the shade of harmless Willow. desirous of of [sic] quitting the noisy bustling street. of quitting obnoxious vapours which keep floating constantly in the atmosphere to breathe the pure and wholesome air as it flows down the clear crystal strem. When we behold the glorious sun rising in the east. adorned with more splendour and magnigicense than the human mind can imagine. whose brilliant and sering(?) rays. dispels all dantiness here below. and sheds his gentle ang [sic] congenial influence– to illumine this \Dark/ vale of oblivion as the rises from behing [sic] those green mountains ___ the verge of the horison. and what a majestic scene is presented to our view! The whole face of creation is crowned with splendour and loveliness. the cloudy vapours strive with their utmost power to check the King of Day!! They float along the on the great expace of air. to obstruct this holy ligh<t> but all in vain.

Whose ringing power they cant forbear. And scatters them aloft amid the spangled heavens and every wither his remote bands cheer him with exqu exquisite beauty. the flowers assume anew and is decorated with all hidges(?) and \charming/ paints of nature and scents the atmosphere with their swete perfume.

And sends the prowling ____ to their dens The beast of the unexplored forest. are no longer far(?) found within den. no longer found wrapped in their soft midnight slumbers. all is in constant(?) action the oer(?) the fields of unknown bounds. in quest of the substance the wakeful \lark/ is no longer found within the shady grove involved the in the embrace of profound sleep but has mounted on the fresh morning air and cheers up his sprite and clarion and pours forth his charming and melodious notes. to salute the coming day <f.25r> elevate in the air the the seems to say in a lonely and prophetic tone.

Arouse ye souls from your morning slumbers
And listen to my soft and charming numbers.

The whole feather tribe can at such a time be seen warbling fand skipping from twig to twig and accompanyied with their soft and exquisite song of praise to their maker! even

The cock salutes the coming morn
Appalling note tunes up his horn.

The green hedge is interspersed with numbers of the feathered choristers hopping from spray to spray and insinuates for their fellow songster to come and join in their melodious choir. Old towser(?) is no more seen in his straw daub(?) hut. but at the dawn of day he barks impatiently for the sound of the huntsmans horn and hastens with to forest and there to chase the wild from their ruddy covering. The red man of western forest is no longer found d within his bark built uiguam but puts on his hunting armour. and habiliments and swings the falal oer his shoulder. and with his quiver to hold the deadly arrows. there he departs from bidding dieu to his offspring till a happy return. now with a cheerfull heart as he trudges along his way uttering his warlike sentiments and occasion___ sep____ to__ peridilay(?) hieroglyphic war song handed down frm his valiant father of his gallant deeds. The bee hastens from his hive to ca__t the sweet and glittering dew from the morning flowers \to lay up a plentiful store of honey for subsistance but seldom v___ _____ do they get the opportunity of enjoyng its delicious taste/ its whole pursuit is after that sweet and delicious juice obtained from the flower if we would chance to walk in _____ on a fine summer morning our ears would somewhat be deafened by the constant humming of the industrious bees. (If all mankind would be as industrious as the bee when a vast change the world would be). The laborious husbandman waked by clarion of the tuneful songsters. is no longer found within his peaceful cottage enjoying the pleasure of morning slumber but hastens to his plough. or swing the ruddy axe oer toil worn shoulder to cactch [sic] the morning air. he leaves his cottage to labour under the schorching beams of the <f.25v>

I wish I was in Oregon
cuting up and have some fun.

Northumberland June 3d 1843

<pencil> My thoughts are wandering oer the world
My mind in cares and troubles curled.

<ink scribbles:> M.D.W. <etc.> / William Wheatley

<continues from previous page> midday sun. The glorious sun has now risen in all his glory he accends slowly till heaviness to his utmost pinacle. The heat. is schorching. the light is brilliant so as Dazzle our eyes. the birds retire to their shady grove the cattle flee to soe shady cover. or labour under the heat of the burning noon. He is now gradually decending gradually as he rose the heat accordingly deminishes. as he arrive at the verge of herizon. The gloden is now about to leave set. behind yonder green mountains close the top of tallest trees. on his departure he gently pours his declining rays of upon elevate spires and steeples. this is his work. the only joy of his departure. He sinks down behind yon usster(?) hall. He bids Farewell to is world of Darkness and ___ - untill he has performed his task on an other part of the earth all is now Darkness in vain we cast our lanishing(?) eyes about __ing the expance of air which one so clear and pan(?) but all in vain-all is chaos. all undistinguishable Darkness. Untill the rising moon makes the appearance in the heaven to imitate his master. The twinkling star _______ the etheral(?) vaul<t> with their brilliant lustre.

To be Continued

<Oversized pen exercises:> Belerma / Lenhart.

<f.26r> <Oversized pen exercises:> Manner. / Morrow / Marrow / Marlow / Mendon / Wilmot

<f.26v>

<A page of various verses and notes>

The murmuring of the restless Deep.
Are formed by such small streams
That never rest or sleep
But gently dream their peaceful dreams

Time of trials tries the hearts of men

Fig. 81st Glummers Surveying

Buckwheat 5 lbs
1 Rabbit
1 lb Crackers
2 Beef stakes
¾ lb Butter
Salt & Pepper
Milk

North Bend Ohio.

Big as a horse and as strong as a buffaloe

Terrors of Swell

When we contemplate of terrors and awful calamaties of of that great Day

I wish to go far Distances(?)
The mountains west & western sea
That the place I love _____
The rocky mountains the place for me

The same old boon
That same old loon
The same old loon

I wish to go this forest \Place/ where
Deer and elk roam or the Plain
There is the Place and none but there
My mind has always wished to gain.

I wish to go to the forest woods

I wish to go where health is found so bright
along the western Brooks around
Where Peace and Plenty Dwells
That the Place my hearts delight

I wish to be in some

The fields are covered oer with snow
How desolate they look
The seasons here that tempest blow
The whistling winds bound oer the brook

The streams with icy fetters bound
The icicle hangs from yon huge lock \glen/
The stormy tempests hark! The sound
That breaks amid the wasteful Diadem(?)

The lonely oak. which once so green
has bid adieu: its charming plume
The winter packs of far to his Den
The spring gives him his parting Doom.

He’l then give forth his sign of spring
With all the splendour. ____ ____
Arrayed in beauty he will cling
Till winter breaks from his lonely tomb

We must soon resign on ____
For ____ ____ _______

<f.27r>

Sept. 24 1843

Northd.

I am now in my sixteenth year of my age. and it is <an> age that youths are full of future calculation and notions. Build a great many castles in the air. Imagination is the chief and fundamental source from which these foolish throughts and opinions are cherished. However incarnate(?) they may be they will be indulged in(?) them untill there will be quite an excitement produced in the foolish mind. But such as they are they will involuntarily arrise in the source(?) of induement(?). Indolence is natural to man is a trait in the human character prominent and this can be seen in every variety of life. The thoughtful mind with all capacities entertains a great ma<n>y false hopes when at the same time \____/ that \it/ is directly opposite to the peculiar desires of the wish.

Suppose for instance a youth of fifteen Just in the prime of Boyhood is full of Deception and deceitfullness and generally of an e<n>vious disposition and flattery(?) and popularity are the principle motives by which all the the deficiencys in the character of Boys are reared up <and> sustained.

Some are possessed of intellectual qualities and prominent requisitions ago(?) some are ______. perhaps born of an illustrious family. and of fortune. and from this position where envy makes his first appearance and is gradually fostered. Theft(?) and orleng(?) he then(?) finds himself in engulfed in pain and misery. Envy is a boon always existed. and existing and is the generaly the most pronounced feature of the Day. The imediate consequences which follows it are suppressing and painfull

<f.27v>

I am about to <give> my opinion on the subject of <blot> and the deceitfulness of the human heart. I shall reason from experience as far as possible and from the rest what I have read on the subject. Did not the same all-wise hand create females that created males - then why this feeling of superiority so prevalent with the male sex. They to leisure [=be sure?]. can lay strength to boldness & resolution. But what are these composed with the characteristicks of a Lovely Female. She may possess virtue and modesty.

<Oversized pen exercises:> Frien\d/ship / Gallan\t/ry / Govern

<f.28r>

An Afternoon walk

The afternoon was pleasant and mild but there was a gentle south east wind in motion, which rendered the day very agreable. Toiled with a weeks labour, desirous of \quitting/ the noisy street, those unhealthy vapours which constantly keep floating in the atmosphere. And for excercise and health I retired to the pleasant \shades/ of \the/ Blue Hill. I crossed the bridge Susquehanna bridge. there was a gentle breeze to fan the flowers, to wave the briny waters when I arrived at the end of the bridge, I began to accend. the lower part of the hill rises gradually about 100 feet. above this the rocks are nearly perpendicular, and in many places mortal feet never trod. I proceeded a considerable distance, untill I arrived at a proper place to accend the lofty precipices.

Those lofty rocks that nature formed
How frightfull is the sight.

<Oversized pen exercises:> Prevalent Mar / Prevalent mar / Bombard

<f.28v> <various scribbles, drawings, and watercolours of leaves and flowers; e.g.:> Painting and Drawing / Drawing taught by J.Wheatley

<f.29r> <Oversized pen exercises:> Principle / Principle / Princple / Palding / Resolution / Bomb

<f.29v> <scribbles and drawings:> N Wanck of Northd County / Procrastination / Slavery <etc.>